Since 2012, 11th October has been marked as the International Day of the Girl. This is inline with United Nations General Assembly adopted Resolution 66/170 to declare the day as the International Day of the Girl Child (IDGC), The day aims to highlight and address the needs and challenges girls face, while promoting girls' empowerment and the fulfillment of their human rights
It could be recalled that nearly 25 years ago, some 30,000 women and men from nearly 200 countries arrived in Beijing, China for the Fourth World Conference on Women, determined to recognize the rights of women and girls as human rights. The conference culminated in the adoption of the Beijing Declaration and Platform for Action: the most comprehensive policy agenda for the empowerment of women.
In the years following, women pressed this agenda forward, leading global movements on issues ranging from sexual and reproductive health rights to equal pay. More girls today are attending and completing school, fewer are getting married or becoming mothers while still children, and more are gaining the skills they need to excel in the future world of work.
Today, these movements have expanded. They are being organized by and for adolescent girls, and tackling issues like child marriage, education inequality, gender-based violence, climate change, self-esteem, and girls’ rights to enter places of worship or public spaces during menstruation. Girls are proving they are unscripted and unstoppable.
This year, under the theme, “Equal Rights of Girls”, we will celebrate achievements by, with and for girls since the adoption of the Beijing Declaration and Platform for Action.
Chapter IV (L) of the Beijing Declaration and Platform for Action which is captioned the “The girl-child” says that in many countries available indicators show that the girl child is discriminated against from the earliest stages of life, through her childhood and into adulthood. In some areas of the world, men outnumber women by 5 in every 100. The reasons for the discrepancy include, among other things, harmful attitudes and practices, such as female genital mutilation, son preference - which results in female infanticide and prenatal sex selection - early marriage, including child marriage, violence against women, sexual exploitation, sexual abuse, discrimination against girls in food allocation and other practices related to health and well-being. As a result, fewer girls than boys survive into adulthood.
This therefore has caused serious problems for the growth from girl child to a woman. In every society, there is practically no woman who will say she did not pass the stage of being a girl child. As always, however, girls are often treated as inferior and are socialized to put themselves last, thus undermining their self-esteem. Sierra Leone is no exception.
On issue relating to freedom of girls in Sierra Leone, we must know that as a country, we have had several laws revolving the welfare of the girl child. Since the country ratified the Convention of the Rights of the Child (CRC) and the Convention on the Elimination of all forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW) there have been robust measures to suppress the gap of inequality between boys and girls on one hand and between men and women on the other hand. The Constitution in sections 15 and 27 all frown against the act of discrimination of persons on the basis of sex and age. The Child Rights Act, the Devolution of Estate Act, the Registration of Customary Marriage and Divorce Act, the Domestic Violence Act and the Sexual Violence Act have all proved to be landmark legal instruments that protect the rights of girls in Sierra Leone.
We must however know that there is no law in Sierra Leone that talks about compulsory representation of women and girls. The aspect of girl’s empowerment has been the most difficult and must hard-to-get goal. Basically, this is because, in my view, girls and later women are faced with several deterring factors in achieving their goals in all the stages of socialization- from the family where the welfare of male children are prioritized, to the society which has standards that impedes the progress of girls, to schools where sex for grades is paramount to finally the offices where women are sexually harassed. Every stage of a female’s life prove to be extremely challenging.
But how can all of there be addressed? The Beijing Declaration and Platform for Action Chapter IV (L) detailed Strategic objective of the declaration. These objectives if adequately implemented by the Government of Sierra Leone, I believe will definitely address the level of disparity between the welfare of girls and boys. They are:
- Eliminate all forms of discrimination against the girl child: this include the full implementation of all the gender laws.
- Eliminate negative cultural attitudes and practices against girls: this includes the legislation against forceful Female Genital Mutilation
- Promote and protect the rights of the girl child and increase awareness of her needs and potential: this include creating awareness on the disadvantages of girls amongst policy makers
- Eliminate discrimination against girls in education, skills development and training: this include universal and equal access to Free Quality Education
- Eliminate discrimination against girls in health and nutrition: this means to implement policy guidelines to create awareness on the health of girls.
- Eliminate the economic exploitation of child labour and protect young girls at work
- Eradicate violence against the girl child
- Promotes the girl’s child awareness of and participation in social, economic and political life. And finally,
- Strengthen the role of the family in improving the status of the girl child.
My belief is that if all of these are addressed in Sierra Leone, we will definitely achieve Equal Rights of Girls in all spectrum of the society.
So let me end my statement with a quote from the UN Secretary General António Guterres who says “We need to uphold the equal rights, voices and influence of girls in our families, communities and nations. Girls can be powerful agents of change, and nothing should keep them from participating fully in all areas of life.”
By the 1970s the limitations of the emphasis on civil and political liberties for women became increasingly clear as the UN struggled with the issues of poverty, malnutrition, and population as it began its preparations for the World Food Conference (1974) and the World Population Conference (1974)